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Tento projekt je spolufinancován Evropským sociálním fondem a státním rozpočtem ČR.

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Projekt Emoce

Datum zveřejnění : 11. 6. 2010Tisk
Kategorie : Společenské vědy
Autoři :  Valíček
Škola : Jaroška,
Pod vedením : Jugasová
Let´s start from the beginning. Imagine the Universe. But not the actual universe, it´s more of an empty space filled with mass and anti-mass. And once upon a time these two subjects collide. The result of this collision is a disaster. It´s the universe as we know it. It´s that endless empty place high above our head containing trillions of trillions of stars and "planetaes", which wander through. Somewhere amongst them is a small habitable planet called "Earth". It´s inhabited by several species of aquatics. One is very bizzare. Let´s call him "human". He´s known for his marvelous use of brain, which helped him to live through the centuries, inovating new stuff. But this "human" has it´s fatal weakness. It´s his emotions. And what are emotions?

Layout:

1) Emotions

2) What are emotions

3) Properties of emotions

4) Dividing

5) Emotional management

6) Benefit of positive emotions

7) Moderating of negative emotions

8) Trainig of self-awareness

9) Summary of some techniques in positive therapy

Emotions

We would like you to welcome you into our project presentation about emotions. The emotions are ordinally part of our lives and they affect it all the time. We have chosen this topic because we, common students, don't know much about them. What are they? How do they influence us? And how can we affect them?

Therefore, we examined the nature of the biological and psychological aspects of their distribution, properties and functions. And also offer technology management emotional stressful situations, or ways to increase personal satisfaction.

 

What are the emotions?

Emotions are psychological procedures which include subjective experiences of pleasure and displeasure followed by physiological changes (change in rate of respiration, heart beat,...), motoric signs (gestures, facial expression) and so on.


They evaluate facts, situations, events and results of operations in accordance with the subjective state and relationship to the evaluated thing. And they lead to assuming attitude to the present situation. Our attitudes are then affected and involved by emotions.

Logical behaviour develops later than emotions, so expressions of emotions are stronger and more difficult to influence. It is also important to mention that emotions are rather ‘infectious’ e.g. happiness at weddings or sadness at funerals. Strong and long-lasting emotions may lead to changes of a physical state. And they can also harm health or even cause death.

Sensations (=tělesné pocity) are a more narrow term than emotions. The main sensations are pain, hunger, tiredness, thirst and also orgasm. Sensations as term label certain emotional experience. Some psychologists claim that sensations are different from emotions but they are in close relationship with them. Sensations can lead to involving certain emotions.


Properties of Emotions

-subjectivity - experiencing emotions is always individual - different individuals react in the same situation differently

-spontaneity - emotions are independent on the will, they run spontaneously

- they relate to a specific experience - they are connected with a thing, person, idea, etc.

- recency - emotions take place immediately and on the instant

- polarity - emotional expressions can easily jump from one extreme to another - we can place them in the dimension of pleasureXdispleasure (joy-sadness, love-hate,...). But sometimes they are undefined (eg, pleasent fear...)

- influence other psychological processes - for example they affect memory

 

Dividing

A lot of different emotion dividing techniques exist in this world as well as dividing their single elements. This is possible by series of serious surveys/researches of psychologists, who specialize in this subject. Let's see the most important ones:

- By strength of intensity a length of duration

o fenomenology separates

§ feeling - emotions contain physiological collerates, which differs them from feelings, which express just an experience size of emotion, i.e. particular sensational experience;

§affection - very intensive, short-term emotion, which is abreaction from suddenly arised stress leading to expressional or distorted behavior, can affect some of the body functions (breathing, heart function,…);

§ mood - less intensive, long-term emotion, which doesn´t have to be a reaction to a specific subject;

§ passion - intensive, long-term emotion, which is emotional affilation to a specific person, idea, thing, a factor influencing thinking and behaviour of an individual; can be a source of energy, will and endurance.

- by character

o basic emotions

§ occur in all nations, cultures and for the most part in high-order aquatics, they divide themselves into:

Emotion

Impulse

Reaction

happiness

success, gain

smile, laugh, laxation

sadness

fail, loss

abjection, crying, apathy

anger

obstacle, enemy

agression, attack

fear

danger, unknown

evasion, hiding, attack

disgustion

awkward  situation/thing

escape, elimination of source

expectation

unknown situation

gaining informations, orientation

surprise

unexpected situation

on the situation (happiness, sadness, anger,…)

confidence (trust)

friendship, straight behavior

trust of another person

[4]

emotion-skull-thumb5409965.jpg

o lower and higher emotions

§ lower - connected with instincts (illumination, born reactions) and impulses (hunger, sex,…), among them are somatic emotions (lassitude, pain, hunger etc.), which, however, some psychologists don´t consider emotions, but body feelings, and defensive or offensive emotions (crying, fear, agression etc.), they´re racionally controlled and cultivated.

§ higher - gained in life, affected by society,  affect the character of an individual. Divided further to:

· moral - express appraisal of actions from a moral point of view (like qualms of conscience, empathy, altruism,…);

· estetic - value and express tact of person;

· intelectual - attend cognition and solving problems (like ambition for truth, curiosity,…);

· social - appear in relation to people and social groups (like love, devotion, admiration, sharing happiness and sadness with others,…).

 

o precognitive a complex emotions

§ precognitive - not based on cognitive classification, anticipate cognition;
- probable causation is verity of existence of connection between sensual organs and amygdal, which don´t trespass cortex (= nest cognitive thinking);

§ complex - unlike in precognitive emotions cognitive classification, which is the source subjectivity of these emotions (like pride, derogation, jealousy, disappointment, envy, hate,…) is always present here.


Emotional management

What can we get if we start to manage our emotions?

 

Benefit of positive emotions

Negative feelings cause us to react every time in the same way: to fight in anger, run away in fear... But positive thinking brings new ideas and new ways of behaviour.

Training of self-awareness

Duration of practising: 1-5 minutes

How to practise:

1) Concentrate on how you feel. Try to notice how much energy do you have - do you feel tired or fresh? Analyze your feelings from different parts of body. Where do you feel warm, cold, comfort, discomfort? Notice tension from different parts of body. Try to imagine how your face looks. What emotions does it express? Are you in peace or in a hurry? Are you tense or relaxed? Observe your whole body.

2) What is your temper? Are you happy, sad, stressed, or tensed? Notice what you are thinking about. Observe your thoughts and how they are changing. Observe how objects of your thoughts are changing from one thing to another. Observe how they affect each other. Find out connections between your thoughts. But don´t follow any thought too long. Only observe them.

3) Think for a while about possible connections between your emotions and body feelings.

 

Moderation of negative emotions

We can use 3 ways of approaching negative emotions:

- Denial - if we are experiencing emotions which are unpleasent or undesirable we can just deny them

- Acceptance - we know what we are feeling, and we accept it

- Self-awareness - we know what we are feeling, and we can work with our emotions though it can be difficult

 

Summary of some techniques in positive therapy

1. Use strong points of your personality. You can indentify strong points of your personality for example on www.viasurvey.org in questionary VIA-IS (Values in Action Inventory of Strengths). (You can get basic resolution of this for free after registration.)

2. Write every evening three good things that happened to you today and think about their causes.

3. Write your imaginary biography. Write it as if you have lived a good and happy life. Summarize it on one or two pages.

4. Think of a person that you are grateful to. Write a letter with your thanks to him and and thank him personally or by the phone.

5.Active constructive reactions mean that a person reacts positive and with excitement to good news. At least once a day react in this way on a person from your environment.

6. Enjoying. At least once a day enjoy an activity you normally do in a hurry. Then analyze in which way it is different.


Multimédia

Quiz Quiz Kvíz
Words Words Slovíčka

Citace

(1) www.wikipedia.cz


Autoři : Valíček Tomáš,
Škola : Jaroška,

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