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Datum zveřejnění : 11. 6. 2010Tisk
Kategorie : Český jazyk
Autoři :  Libra , Mezlíková
Škola : Jaroška,
Pod vedením : Jugasová
This project is about the Seven summits list. This list includes basic information about the highest mountain of each continent, such as the high, the location, the natural and weather conditions and also some famous climbers.

Seven Summits

 

Syllabus:

1. What is Seven Summits is.

2. Mount Kosciuszko

3. Mount Vinson

4. Elbrus

5. Kilimanjaro

6. Mount McKinley

7. Aconcagua

8. Mount Everest

9. Conclusion

 

1

Let's start with Seven Summits. Seven Summits is a climbing list which was created at first by Richard Bass in the 80s and it includes the highest mountain on each continent.  The second one was made by Reinhold Messner. His list is different from Bass's in the highest Australian peak.

We are going to follow Bass's list, where you can find these mountains: Kilimanjaro, Vinson Massif, Mt. Kosciuszko, Mt. Everest, Elbrus, Mount McKinley and Aconcagua.

For all mountaineers it is a dream to climb the listed mountains. It is like winning Wimbledon for a tennis player.

2

Mount Kosciuszko

Mt. Kosciuszko is the highest mountain in Australia with the hight 2228 meters. It is situated in the southeast in the Snowy Mountains. It was named after the Polish general Tadeusz Koscuiszko, who became famous in the American fight for independence in a battle of Saratoga in 1777. The first man to reach the summet, Paul Edmund Strzelecki, gave the mountain this name, although Kosciuszko had never been to Australia.It was on 15th February 1840.

Conquering the peak isn't difficult, you can compare its  ascent to climbing Sněžka. Every year more than 100, 000 tourists conquer the peak.  There are three trails, one of them is a cycle-way. If you want to take a photo up on the hill, you have to wait ina line-up.

3

Mount Vinson

Mount Vinson with the hight 4900 meters is the highest peak in Antarctica. It was named after the American congressman Carl G. Vinson, who supported the research of Antarctica. It was discovered in 1935 when an American pilot took a picture of it. Conquering  Mount Vinson began after it was included in the Seven Summits list.

There is extreme weather, the highest temperature is never higher than -20°C. If wind is blowing, temperature goes down up to -60°C. Although this mountain is the coldest in the world, 95% of expeditions are succesful, because all the climbers are physicaly and technicaly prepared. You need to be well off to afford the climb, the permit and the necessary equipment are expensive.

Nicolas Clinch was the first climber who reached  the top in 1966. Other famous climbers are Richard Bass, Pat Morrow, Reinhold Messner and Junko Tabei, who was the fist women on the top. Miroslav Caban conquered Mt. Vinson in 2004 as the first Czech mountaineer.

4

Elbrus

Elbrus is with the high 5633 meters the highest mountain in Europe. It is situated in the Caucasus. The Caucasus forms the interface between Europe and Asia. Because of this some people consider Mount Blanc in the Alps the highest European mountain. But we chose Elbrus, because both lists of 7 Summits mention Elbus as the highest one. It was named after Hara Bərəzaitī, the legendary mountain from Persian mytology.

Elbrus is a volcano which was glaciated in the Pleistocene. Plenty of mineral springs called Narzans were formed here. People who live there belive that water from springs gives the dying life and the aging youth. It is hard to say if it is true, but local peole are famous for living long and healthy lives.

Elbrus has two peaks. The smaller top was first conquered by Russian general Emmanuel in 1829. The first climbers who got to the higher peak were members of the French expediton led by Florence C. Grov in 1874. In the the Soviet Union era   climbing was a national sport. As a result lots of inexperienced  people died during a climb. They were not ready for arctic conditions - in the winter the temperature falls up to minus 50 degrees.

5

Kilimanjaro

Kilimanjaro is with the high 5895 meters the highest mountain in Africa. The name Kilimanjaro was propably formed from two words - kilima and njaro. Kilima means mountain and Njaro means shining = "Shining mountain". Other names for this mountain are Uhuru() and Oldoinyo Oibor ( "White mountain").

In fact it isn´t only a mountain, but it is also a  volcano. It has three craters - Kibo, Mawenzi and Shira. Kibo is the highest peak and it isn´t  extinct yet.

Kilimanjaro is covered by glaciers, but they are melting because of global warming. There are five vegetation zones. From the savanna up to the ice desert.

In Europe nobody believed that in Africa there is a mountain covered by snow until Johanner Rebmann saw Kilimanjaro as the first European in 1848.

Climbing up  Kilimanjaro is absolutely amazing, because of unique species of animals and vegetation. It isn't too dificult to conquer the top, because you don't have to use ropes and safety lines. There are five basic paths and the climb takes approximately six days. The first conquerer was an African army spy Johannes Kinyala Lauwo, he climbed the peak nine times. In 1889 he took  the first official expedition there. The first woman on the top was Heidi Zimmer and the youngest person who conquered the peak was Keats Boyd. He was 7 years old. Also, two cyclists stood on the top in 1984.

6

Mount McKinley

Mount McKinlney is the highest mountain in North America with 6194 meters and it is the highest northernmost mountain in the world. It lies in the Alaskan mountains. Mount McKinley was named after the  American president William McKinley. In an Indian language it is called Denali.

In 1912 a huge earthquake changed the form of this mountain. Now it has two peaks.

Mount McKinley is in a large national park Denali National Park, established by Charles Sheldon. Up to this day in this region there is the  same balance between a hunter and a prey like before civilization arrived here.

Another interesting thing about Mount McKinley is the comparison between its hight and the hight of Mount Everest. Mount Everest is on the  Tibetan plateau, which lies in 5200 meters above the sea level. So the real hight of Mount Everest is only 3700 but the real hight of Mount McKinley is 5500 meters.

Climate conditions here are very extreme. The mountain is near the polar circle and temperatures in the winter fall even under  minus 50 °C. Climbers can often have an altitude sickness because of low pressure.

The clim is very difficult and dangerous. Nowadays expeditions start in the city of Talkeetna and from here they go by plane to   Kahiltna glacier. Then starts 2 - 4 weeks long journey. Only half  an expeditions are successful. The first unsuccessful attempt made  an Alaskan judge James Wickersham, in 1901. In 1906 American Frederik Cook conquered the north peak, which is lower. The higher south peak was first conquered in 1913 by Hudson Stuck, Walter Harper, Harry Karstens and Robert Tatum. The first woman on the top was Barbara Washburn and the first winter climb was done in 1967 by Dave Johnston, Art Davidson and Ray Genet.  Czech expeditions climbed this mountain too. In 2002 it was Jiří and Klára Kočar's expedition and in 2009 Bartoš, Džmuráň, Moravec, Mühlbacher and Fojtík conquered the top.

7

Aconcagua

Aconcagua is the highest mouintain in South America with 6969 meters. It is also the highest mountain on the western and southern hemisphere and the highest mountain of the whole America. It is situated in the Andes Natives gave it its name and in Quechua, the Indian language, it means White guard.

Aco has two peaks, higher is the northern one. Climate conditions are similar like in the Himalayas. The most dangerous weather cinditions causes the wind Vieto Blanco, which is very strong and it reaches up to 200 kilometres per hour.It is formed by the collision of the stem from the Pacific Ocean and hot air from pampas. The first conquest of this mountain starts in Inka civilization. We don´t know if they reached the top, but they certainly were in 6000 meters. The first man on the top was Mathias Zurbriggen in 1897. Vladislav Bezděk became in 1979 the  first successful climber from Czechoslovakia.

There are three basic mountain tracks. The most difficult is the South Flank, with its  2500 meter, it is the fifth biggest cliff in the world. It was at first coquered in 1954 by Paragot, Poulet, Dagory, Berandini, Lesseur and Denis. Each year there are 3500 attempts to reach the top. The best season to climb is January, when it is summer there.

8

Mount Everest

Mount Everest is the highest mountain in the world with 8848 meters. It is situated in the  Himalayas, where are ten highest mountains in the world. It was named after sir Georg Everest. In Nepalese it is called Sagarmatha ( Face of Heaven), in Tibetan language it is called Qomolangma ( Mother of the World).

Mount Everest is the highest mountain above the sea level. However, the highest mountain could be Mauna Loa on Hawaii. Its hight is over 9000 meters, but its hight above the  sea level is only 4170 meters.

There are extreme climate conditions, the lowest temperature goes down up to -60 °C also in summer temperature is never higher than -19 °C. Humidity of air concentrates and makes a white cloud around the top. Because of this scientist at first thought that Mount Everest was a volcano. The highest speed of wind reaches up to 285 kph.

There have been several measurements of its altitude. In 1852 Radnath Sikdar first discovered that Mount Everest is the highest mountain. According to the  latest Chinese measurrement in 2005, it is  8844 meters high.

The first conquest was influenced by  political situation in Nepal and China. Most  climbs are from April to May, when there are the best climate conditions. Winter climbs are very difficult, only fewer than ten mountaineers have been successful. Edmund Hillary and Nepalese Tenzing Norgay  first conquered the top in 1953, however there exists a speculation, that first man on the top was George Mallory, who died while he was climbing Everest in 1924. The first woman on the top was Junko Tabei in 1975, the first winter climb did a Polish expedition in 1980, the first climb without an oxygen tank did Reinhold Messner and Peter Habeler in 1978. The youngest men who conquered the top was only fifteen years old. The first Czechoslovakian climb did Zoltán Demján and Josef Psotka in 1984. The first Czech climber on the top was Leopold Sulovský in 1991.

On the top there have been about several thousand people, without the oxygen tank only about a hundered and without the oxygen tank, support from the Nepalese guides and safety ropes only three people - Reinhold Messner, Erhard Loretan and Jean Troillet.

9

Conclusion

Finally we would like to inform you about several mountaineers who did the list Seven summits. The list includes about 200 names.

Richard Bass is an amateur climber and he made The list and climbed all mountains as first.

Reinhold Messner is the most famous mountaineer. He climbed all mountains without the oxygen tank and he as first conquered Everest without the safety ropes. He also climbed fourteen eight - thousand mountains.

Junko Tabei is the first women who successfully made the project Seven summits.

Miroslav Caban is the only one Czech who finished the project. In the nerest future the next will be Pavel Bém.


Multimédia

cvičení cvičení
Slovíčka Slovíčka
Celý projekt Celý projekt

Citace

(1) http://mtkosciuszko.org.au/

(2) http://cs.wikipedia.org/

(3) http://en.wikipedia.org/

(4) http://de.wikipedia.org/

(5) http://www.cumbres.cz/

(6) http://www.kilimanjaro.cz/

(7) http://www.zemepis.com/

(8) http://www.velehory.cz/

(9) http://www.mounteverest.net/


Autoři : Libra Jiří, Mezlíková Martina,
Škola : Jaroška,

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